Republic of Ireland

Ireland[a]

Éire  (Irish)
Anthem: "Amhrán na bhFiann"
(English: "The Soldiers' Song")
Location of Ireland (dark green) – in Europe (green & dark grey) – in the European Union (green)
Location of Ireland (dark green)

– in Europe (green & dark grey)
– in the European Union (green)

Capital
and largest city
Dublin
53°20.65′N 6°16.05′W / 53°20.65′N 6°16.05′W / 53.34417; -6.26750
Official languages
Ethnic groups
(2016[2])
  • 82.2% White Irish
  • 9.5% Other White
  • 2.6% Not stated
  • 2.1% Other Asian / Asian Irish
  • 1.5% Other
  • 1.2% Black Irish / Black African
  • 0.7% Irish Traveller
  • 0.1% Other Black
Demonym(s)Irish
GovernmentUnitary parliamentary republic
• President
Michael D. Higgins
• Taoiseach
Leo Varadkar
• Tánaiste
Simon Coveney
LegislatureOireachtas
Seanad
Dáil
Stages of independence 
24 April 1916
21 January 1919
6 December 1921
6 December 1922
29 December 1937
18 April 1949
• Joined the EEC
1 January 1973
Area
• Total
70,273 km2 (27,133 sq mi) (118th)
• Water (%)
2.00
Population
• 2018 estimate
Increase 4,857,000[3] (123rd)
• Density
69.1/km2 (179.0/sq mi) (142nd)
GDP (PPP)2018 estimate
• Total
$382 billion[4] (56th)
• Per capita
$79,925[4] (7th)
GDP (nominal)2018 estimate
• Total
$385 billion[4] (42nd)
• Per capita
$80,641[4] (4th)
Gini (2017)Negative increase 30.6[5]
medium · 23rd
HDI (2017)Increase 0.938[6]
very high · 4th
CurrencyEuro ()[note 1] (EUR)
Time zoneUTC (GMT/WET)
• Summer (DST)
UTC+1 (IST/WEST)
Date formatdd/mm/yyyy
Driving sideleft
Calling code+353
ISO 3166 codeIE
Internet TLD.ie[c]
  1. ^ Article 4 of the Section 2 of the Republic of Ireland Act 1948 declares that Republic of Ireland is "the description of the State".[7]
  2. ^ Also the sole national language, as per the Section 2 of the Official Languages Act 2003.
  3. ^ The .eu domain is also used, as it is shared with other European Union member states.

Ireland (Irish: Éire [ˈeːɾʲə] (About this soundlisten)), also known as the Republic of Ireland (Poblacht na hÉireann), is a country in north-western Europe occupying 26 of 32 counties of the island of Ireland. The capital and largest city is Dublin, which is located on the eastern side of the island. Around a third of the country's population of 4.8 million people resides in the greater Dublin area.[8] The sovereign state shares its only land border with Northern Ireland, a part of the United Kingdom. It is otherwise surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the Celtic Sea to the south, St George's Channel to the south-east, and the Irish Sea to the east. It is a unitary, parliamentary republic.[9] The legislature, the Oireachtas, consists of a lower house, Dáil Éireann, an upper house, Seanad Éireann, and an elected President (Uachtarán) who serves as the largely ceremonial head of state, but with some important powers and duties. The head of government is the Taoiseach (Prime Minister, literally 'Chief', a title not used in English), who is elected by the Dáil and appointed by the President; the Taoiseach in turn appoints other government ministers.

The state was created as the Irish Free State in 1922 as a result of the Anglo-Irish Treaty. It had the status of Dominion until 1937 when a new constitution was adopted, in which the state was named "Ireland" and effectively became a republic, with an elected non-executive president as head of state. It was officially declared a republic in 1949, following the Republic of Ireland Act 1948. Ireland became a member of the United Nations in December 1955. It joined the European Economic Community (EEC), the predecessor of the European Union, in 1973. The state had no formal relations with Northern Ireland for most of the twentieth century, but during the 1980s and 1990s the British and Irish governments worked with the Northern Ireland parties towards a resolution to "the Troubles". Since the signing of the Good Friday Agreement in 1998, the Irish government and Northern Ireland Executive have co-operated on a number of policy areas under the North-South Ministerial Council created by the Agreement.

Ireland ranks among the top ten wealthiest countries in the world in terms of GDP per capita,[10] and as the tenth most prosperous country in the world according to The Legatum Prosperity Index 2015.[11] After joining the EEC, Ireland enacted a series of liberal economic policies that resulted in rapid economic growth. The country achieved considerable prosperity between the years of 1995 and 2007, which became known as the Celtic Tiger period. This was halted by an unprecedented financial crisis that began in 2008, in conjunction with the concurrent global economic crash.[12][13] However, as the Irish economy was the fastest growing in the EU in 2015,[14] Ireland is again quickly ascending league tables comparing wealth and prosperity internationally. For example, in 2015, Ireland was ranked as the joint sixth (with Germany) most developed country in the world by the United Nations Human Development Index.[15] It also performs well in several national performance metrics, including freedom of the press, economic freedom and civil liberties. Ireland is a member of the European Union and is a founding member of the Council of Europe and the OECD. The Irish government has followed a policy of military neutrality through non-alignment since immediately prior to World War II and the country is consequently not a member of NATO,[16] although it is a member of Partnership for Peace.

Name

The 1922 state, comprising 26 of the 32 counties of Ireland, was "styled and known as the Irish Free State".[17] The Constitution of Ireland, adopted in 1937, provides that "the name of the State is Éire, or, in the English language, Ireland". Section 2 of the Republic of Ireland Act 1948 states, "It is hereby declared that the description of the State shall be the Republic of Ireland." The 1948 Act does not name the state as "Republic of Ireland", because to have done so would have put it in conflict with the Constitution.[18]

The government of the United Kingdom used the name "Eire" (without the diacritic) and, from 1949, "Republic of Ireland", for the state;[19] it was not until the 1998 Good Friday Agreement that it used the name "Ireland".[20]

As well as "Ireland", "Éire" or "the Republic of Ireland", the state is also referred to as "the Republic", "Southern Ireland" or "the South".[21] In an Irish republican context it is often referred to as "the Free State" or "the 26 Counties".[22]