Republic of the Philippines
14°35′N 120°58′E / 14°35′N 120°58′E / 14.583; 120.967
|Largest city||Quezon City|
14°38′N 121°02′E / 14°38′N 121°02′E / 14.633; 121.033
|Recognized regional languages|
|Other recognized languages||Official and national sign languageb|
Filipino Sign Language
|Ethnic groups |
(masculine or neutral)
(colloquial masculine or neutral)
|Government||Unitary presidential constitutional republic|
|Maria Leonor Robredo|
|Vicente Sotto III|
|Alan Peter Cayetano|
|House of Representatives|
|Formation of the republic |
|June 12, 1898|
|December 10, 1898|
|January 21, 1899|
|March 24, 1934|
|May 14, 1935|
|July 4, 1946|
|February 2, 1987|
|300,000 km2 (120,000 sq mi) (72nd)|
• Water (%)
|0.61 (inland waters)|
• 2015 census
|336/km2 (870.2/sq mi) (47th)|
|GDP (PPP)||2019 estimate|
|$1.041 trillion (27th)|
• Per capita
|GDP (nominal)||2019 estimate|
|$354 billion (36th)|
• Per capita
|Gini (2015)|| 40.1|
medium · 44th
|HDI (2017)|| 0.699|
medium · 113th
|Currency||Peso (₱) (PHP)|
|Time zone||UTC+8 (PST)|
|UTC+8 (not observed)|
- dd-mm-yyyy (AD)
|ISO 3166 code||PH|
|Internet TLD||Official Gazette of the Republic of the Philippines|
- ^ While Manila proper is designated as the nation's capital, the whole of National Capital Region (NCR) is designated as seat of government, hence the name of a region. This is because it has many national government institutions aside from Malacañang Palace and some agencies/institutions that are located within the capital city.
- ^ Article 3 of Republic Act No. 11106 declared the Filipino Sign Language as the national sign language of the Philippines, specifying that it shall be recognized, supported and promoted as the medium of official communication in all transactions involving the deaf, and as the language of instruction of deaf education.
- ^ The 1987 Philippine constitution specifies "Spanish and Arabic shall be promoted on a voluntary and optional basis."
- ^ Filipino revolutionaries declared independence from Spain on June 12, 1898, but Spain ceded the islands to the United States for $20 million in the Treaty of Paris on December 10, 1898, which eventually led to the Philippine–American War.
- ^ The United States of America recognized the independence of the Philippines on July 4, 1946, through the Treaty of Manila. This date was chosen because it corresponds to the U.S. Independence Day, which was observed in the Philippines as Independence Day until May 12, 1962, when President Diosdado Macapagal issued Presidential Proclamation No. 28, shifting it to June 12, the date of Emilio Aguinaldo's proclamation.
- ^ In accordance with article 11 of the Revolutionary Government Decree of June 23, 1898, the Malolos Congress selected a commission to draw up a draft constitution on September 17, 1898. The commission was composed of Hipólito Magsalin, Basilio Teodoro, José Albert, Joaquín González, Gregorio Araneta, Pablo Ocampo, Aguedo Velarde, Higinio Benitez, Tomás del Rosario, José Alejandrino, Alberto Barretto, José Ma. de la Viña, José Luna, Antonio Luna, Mariano Abella, Juan Manday, Felipe Calderón, Arsenio Cruz and Felipe Buencamino. They were all wealthy and well educated.
The Philippines (/ (listen) FIL-ə-peenz; Filipino: Pilipinas [ˌpɪlɪˈpinɐs] or Filipinas [ˌfɪlɪˈpinɐs]), officially the Republic of the Philippines (Filipino: Republika ng Pilipinas),[a] is an archipelagic country in Southeast Asia. Situated in the western Pacific Ocean, it consists of about 7,641 islands that are categorized broadly under three main geographical divisions from north to south: Luzon, Visayas and Mindanao. The capital city of the Philippines is Manila and the most populous city is Quezon City, both part of Metro Manila. Bounded by the South China Sea on the west, the Philippine Sea on the east and the Celebes Sea on the southwest, the Philippines shares maritime borders with Taiwan to the north, Japan to the northeast, Vietnam to the west, Palau to the east, and Malaysia and Indonesia to the south.
The Philippines' location on the Pacific Ring of Fire and close to the equator makes the Philippines prone to earthquakes and typhoons, but also endows it with abundant natural resources and some of the world's greatest biodiversity. The Philippines is the world's 5th largest island country with an area of 300,000 km2 (120,000 sq mi). As of 2015, had a population of at least 100 million. As of January 2018 , it is the eighth-most populated country in Asia and the 12th most populated country in the world. Approximately 10 million additional Filipinos lived overseas, comprising one of the world's largest diasporas. Multiple ethnicities and cultures are found throughout the islands. In prehistoric times, Negritos were some of the archipelago's earliest inhabitants. They were followed by successive waves of Austronesian peoples. Exchanges with Malay, Indian, Arab and Chinese nations occurred. Then, various competing maritime states were established under the rule of datus, rajahs, sultans and lakans.
The arrival of Ferdinand Magellan, a Portuguese explorer leading a fleet for the Spanish, in Homonhon, Eastern Samar in 1521 marked the beginning of Hispanic colonization. In 1543, Spanish explorer Ruy López de Villalobos named the archipelago Las Islas Filipinas in honor of Philip II of Spain. With the arrival of Miguel López de Legazpi from Mexico City, in 1565, the first Hispanic settlement in the archipelago was established. The Philippines became part of the Spanish Empire for more than 300 years. This resulted in Catholicism becoming the dominant religion. During this time, Manila became the western hub of the trans-Pacific trade connecting Asia with Acapulco in the Americas using Manila galleons.
As the 19th century gave way to the 20th, the Philippine Revolution quickly followed, which then spawned the short-lived First Philippine Republic, followed by the bloody Philippine–American War. The war, as well as the ensuing cholera epidemic, resulted in the deaths of thousands of combatants as well as tens of thousands of civilians. Aside from the period of Japanese occupation, the United States retained sovereignty over the islands until after World War II, when the Philippines was recognized as an independent nation. Since then, the unitary sovereign state has often had a tumultuous experience with democracy, which included the overthrow of a dictatorship by a non-violent revolution.
The Philippines is a founding member of the United Nations, World Trade Organization, Association of Southeast Asian Nations, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum, and the East Asia Summit. It also hosts the headquarters of the Asian Development Bank. The Philippines is considered to be an emerging market and a newly industrialized country, which has an economy transitioning from being based on agriculture to one based more on services and manufacturing. Along with East Timor, the Philippines is one of Southeast Asia's predominantly Christian nations.
The Philippines was named in honor of King Philip II of Spain. Spanish explorer Ruy López de Villalobos, during his expedition in 1542, named the islands of Leyte and Samar Felipinas after the then-Prince of Asturias. Eventually the name Las Islas Filipinas would be used to cover all the islands of the archipelago. Before that became commonplace, other names such as Islas del Poniente (Islands of the West) and Magellan's name for the islands San Lázaro were also used by the Spanish to refer to the islands.
The official name of the Philippines has changed several times in the course of its history. During the Philippine Revolution, the Malolos Congress proclaimed the establishment of the República Filipina or the Philippine Republic. From the period of the Spanish–American War (1898) and the Philippine–American War (1899–1902) until the Commonwealth period (1935–1946), American colonial authorities referred to the country as the Philippine Islands, a translation of the Spanish name. Since the end of World War II, the official name of the country has been the Republic of the Philippines. Philippines has steadily gained currency as the common name since being the name used in Article VI of the 1898 Treaty of Paris, with or without the definite article.