|alternative dispute resolution|
or external dispute resolution|
- collaborative law
- conflict resolution
- dispute resolution
- lawyer-supported mediation
- party-directed mediation
- restorative justice
signing the treaty of trianon
on 4 june 1920. albert apponyi
standing in the middle.
the ministers of foreign affairs of the united states, the united kingdom, russia, germany, france, china, the european union and iran negotiating
for a comprehensive agreement on the iranian nuclear programme
(30 march 2015).
negotiation is a dialogue between two or more people or parties intended to reach a beneficial outcome over one or more issues where a conflict exists with respect to at least one of these issues. negotiation is an interaction and process between entities who compromise to agree on matters of mutual interest, while optimizing their individual utilities. this beneficial outcome can be for all of the parties involved, or just for one or some of them. negotiators need to understand negotiation process and other negotiators to increase their chances to close deals, avoid conflicts, establishing relationship with other parties and gain profit.
it is aimed to resolve points of difference, to gain advantage for an individual or collective, or to craft outcomes to satisfy various interests. it is often conducted by putting forward a position and making concessions to achieve an agreement. the degree to which the negotiating parties trust each other to implement the negotiated solution is a major factor in determining whether negotiations are successful.
people negotiate daily, often without considering it a negotiation. negotiation occurs in organizations, including businesses, non-profits, and within and between governments as well as in sales and legal proceedings, and in personal situations such as marriage, divorce, parenting, etc. professional negotiators are often specialized, such as union negotiators, leverage buyout negotiators, peace negotiator, or hostage negotiators. they may also work under other titles, such as diplomats, legislators, or brokers. there is also negotiation conducted by algorithms or machines known as autonomous negotiation. for automation, the negotiation participants and process have to be modeled correctly.