Muslims

Muslims
Prayer in Cairo 1865.jpg
Muslims praying in 1865 Cairo by Jean-Léon Gérôme
Total population
1.9 billion worldwide (2019 est.)[1][2][3]
Founder
Muhammad[4]
Regions with significant populations
 Indonesia236,813,588[5]
 Pakistan198,770,826[6]
 India194,551,607[7]
 Bangladesh151,905,776[8]
 Nigeria99,186,447[9]
 Egypt94,996,415[10]
 Iran82,944,372[11]
 Turkey82,795,140[12]
 Algeria42,070,689[13]
 Iraq41,277,535[14]
 Sudan39,859,930[15]
 Ethiopia38,152,812[16]
 Afghanistan36,798,051[17]
 Morocco36,335,923[18]
 Saudi Arabia32,286,039[2]
 Uzbekistan30,783,683[19]
 Yemen29,558,916[20]
 China25,223,576[2]
 Malaysia20,572,091[21]
 Syria15,552,115[2]
Rest of the world340,176,009[2]
Religions
80–90% Sunni Islam[22][23]
10–13% Shia Islam[24][25]
~1% Ahmadiyya[26]
~1% Other Muslim traditions, e.g. Ibadi Islam[27]
Scriptures
Quran[28]
Languages
Sacred languages:[30]

Muslims are people who follow or practice Islam, a monotheistic Abrahamic religion. Muslims consider the Quran, their holy book, to be the verbatim word of God as revealed to the Islamic prophet and messenger Muhammad. The majority of Muslims also follow the teachings and practices of Muhammad (sunnah) as recorded in traditional accounts (hadith).[31] "Muslim" is an Arabic word meaning "submitter" (to God).[32]

The beliefs of Muslims include: that God (Arabic: اللهAllāh) is eternal, transcendent and absolutely one (tawhid); that God is incomparable, self-sustaining and neither begets nor was begotten; that Islam is the complete and universal version of a primordial faith that has been revealed before through many prophets including Abraham, Ishmael, Isaac, Moses, and Jesus;[33] that these previous messages and revelations have been partially changed or corrupted over time (tahrif)[34] and that the Quran is the final unaltered revelation from God (Final Testament).[35]

Qualifier

The religious practices of Muslims are enumerated in the Five Pillars of Islam: the declaration of faith (shahadah), daily prayers (salat), fasting during the month of Ramadan (sawm), almsgiving (zakat), and the pilgrimage to Mecca (hajj) at least once in a lifetime.[36][37]

To become a Muslim and to convert to Islam, it is essential to utter the Shahada, one of the Five Pillars of Islam, a declaration of faith and trust that professes that there is only one God (Allah) and that Muhammad is God's messenger.[38] It is a set statement normally recited in Arabic: lā ʾilāha ʾillā-llāhu muḥammadun rasūlu-llāh (لَا إِلٰهَ إِلَّا الله مُحَمَّدٌ رَسُولُ الله) "There is no god but Allah, (and) Muhammad is the messenger of God."[39]

In Sunni Islam, the shahada has two parts: la ilaha illa'llah (there is no god but God), and Muhammadun rasul Allah (Muhammad is the messenger of God),[40] which are sometimes referred to as the first shahada and the second shahada.[41] The first statement of the shahada is also known as the tahlīl.[42]

In Shia Islam, the shahada also has a third part, a phrase concerning Ali, the first Shia Imam and the fourth Rashid caliph of Sunni Islam: وعليٌ وليُّ الله (wa ʿalīyyun walīyyu-llāh), which translates to "Ali is the wali of God".[43]