Kingdom of Prussia

  • kingdom of prussia

    königreich preußen
    1701–1918
    flag of prussia
    flag
    (1803–1892)
    royal coat of arms of prussia
    royal coat of arms
    anthem: 
    • preußenlied
    • song of prussia


    • royal anthem
    • "heil dir im siegerkranz"
    • "hail to thee in the victor's crown"

    the kingdom of prussia within the german empire between 1871 and 1918
    the kingdom of prussia within the german empire between 1871 and 1918
    statusstate of the german confederation
    (partly, 1815–1866)
    state of the north german confederation
    (1867–1871)
    federal state of the german empire
    (1871–1918)
    capitalberlin
    königsberg (official capital of the kingdom proper until 1806)
    common languagesofficial:
    german
    recognised:
    • low german
    • polish
    • danish
    • frisian
    • lower sorbian
    • kashubian
    religion
    majority:
    protestantism (lutheran and reformed; since 1817 prussian united)
    minorities:
    roman catholicism, judaism
    governmentabsolute monarchy (until 1848)
    constitutional monarchy (from 1848)
    king 
    • 1701–1713 (first)
    frederick i
    • 1888–1918 (last)
    wilhelm ii
    minister-presidenta 
    • 1848 (first)
    adolf heinrich
    • 1918 (last)
    max von baden
    legislaturelandtag
    • upper house
    herrenhaus
    • lower house
    abgeordnetenhaus
    historical era
    • new imperialism
    • world war i
    • coronation of frederick i
    18 january 1701
    • battle of jena–auerstedt
    14 october 1806
    • congress of vienna
    9 june 1815
    • constitution adopted
    5 december 1848
    • germany unified
    18 january 1871
    • william ii abdicatedb
    28 november 1918
    • treaty of versailles
    28 june 1919
    area
    1910[1]348,779 km2 (134,664 sq mi)
    population
    • 1816[2]
    10,349,031
    • 1871[2]
    24,689,000
    • 1910[1]
    40,169,219
    currency
    • 1701–1750 reichsthaler
    • 1750–1857 thaler
    • 1857–1873 vereinsthaler
    • 1873–1914 goldmark
    • 1914–1918 papiermark
    preceded by
    succeeded by
    holy roman empire
    polish–lithuanian commonwealth
    duchy of prussia
    brandenburg-prussia.svg brandenburg-prussia
    royal prussia
    free city of danzig
    swedish pomerania
    electorate of hesse
    free city of frankfurt
    duchy of nassau
    kingdom of hanover
    duchy of holstein
    duchy of schleswig
    saxe-lauenburg
    free state of prussia
    free city of danzig
    second polish republic
    weimar republic
    first czechoslovak republic
    today part of czech republic
     denmark
     germany
     lithuania
     poland
     russia
    • ^a during the north german confederation and german empire (1867–1918), the minister-president of prussia was also the chancellor of germany.
    • ^b statement of abdication of william ii
    arms of brandenburg.svg
    arms of east prussia.svg

    history of brandenburg and prussia
    northern march
    965–983
    old prussians
    pre-13th century
    lutician federation
    983–12th century
    margraviate of brandenburg
    1157–1618 (1806) {hre)
    (bohemia 1373–1415)
    teutonic order
    1224–1525
    (polish fief 1466-1525)
    duchy of prussia
    1525–1618 (1701)
    (polish fief 1525-1657)
    royal (polish) prussia (poland)
    1454/1466–1772
    brandenburg-prussia
    1618–1701
    kingdom in prussia
    1701–1772
    kingdom of prussia
    1772–1918
    free state of prussia (germany)
    1918–1947
    klaipėda region
    (lithuania)
    1920–1939 / 1945–present
    recovered territories
    (poland)
    1918/1945–present
    brandenburg
    (germany)
    1947–1952 / 1990–present
    kaliningrad oblast
    (russia)
    1945–present

    the kingdom of prussia (german: königreich preußen) was a german kingdom that constituted the state of prussia between 1701 and 1918.[3] it was the driving force behind the unification of germany in 1871 and was the leading state of the german empire until its dissolution in 1918.[3] although it took its name from the region called prussia, it was based in the margraviate of brandenburg, where its capital was berlin.

    the kings of prussia were from the house of hohenzollern. prussia was a great power from the time it became a kingdom, through its predecessor, brandenburg-prussia, which became a military power under frederick william, known as "the great elector".[4][5][6][7] prussia continued its rise to power under the guidance of frederick ii, more commonly known as frederick the great, who was the third son of frederick william i.[8] frederick the great was instrumental in starting the seven years' war, holding his own against austria, russia, france and sweden and establishing prussia's role in the german states, as well as establishing the country as a european great power.[9] after the might of prussia was revealed it was considered as a major power among the german states. throughout the next hundred years prussia went on to win many battles, and many wars.[10] because of its power, prussia continuously tried to unify all the german states (excluding the german cantons in switzerland) under its rule, and whether austria would be included in such a unified german domain was an ongoing question.

    after the napoleonic wars led to the creation of the german confederation, the issue of unifying the german states caused a number of revolutions throughout the german states, with all states wanting to have their own constitution.[3] attempts to create a federation remained unsuccessful and the german confederation collapsed in 1866 when war ensued between its two most powerful member states, prussia and austria. the north german confederation, which lasted from 1867 to 1871, created a closer union between the prussian-aligned states while austria and most of southern germany remained independent.[3] the north german confederation was seen as more of an alliance of military strength in the aftermath of the austro-prussian war but many of its laws were later used in the german empire. the german empire lasted from 1871 to 1918 with the successful unification of all the german states under prussian hegemony;[3] this was due to the defeat of napoleon iii in the franco-prussian war of 1870–71. the war united all the german states against a common enemy, and with the victory came an overwhelming wave of nationalism which changed the opinions of some of those who had been against unification. in 1871, germany unified into a single country, minus austria and switzerland, with prussia the dominant power.[3]

    prussia is considered the legal predecessor of the unified german reich (1871–1945) and as such a direct ancestor of today's federal republic of germany.[3] the formal abolition of prussia, carried out on 25 february 1947 by the fiat of the allied control council, referred to an alleged tradition of the kingdom as a bearer of militarism and reaction, and made way for the current setup of the german states. however, the free state of prussia (freistaat preußen), which followed the abolition of the kingdom of prussia in the aftermath of world war i, was a major democratic force in weimar germany until the nationalist coup of 1932 known as the preußenschlag.[citation needed] the kingdom left a significant cultural legacy, today notably promoted by the prussian cultural heritage foundation (stiftung preußischer kulturbesitz (spk)), which has become one of the largest cultural organisations in the world.[11]

  • history
  • state
  • religion
  • subdivisions
  • references
  • bibliography

Kingdom of Prussia

Königreich Preußen
1701–1918
Anthem: 
The Kingdom of Prussia within the German Empire between 1871 and 1918
The Kingdom of Prussia within the German Empire between 1871 and 1918
StatusState of the German Confederation
(partly, 1815–1866)
State of the North German Confederation
(1867–1871)
Federal State of the German Empire
(1871–1918)
CapitalBerlin
Königsberg (official capital of the kingdom proper until 1806)
Common languagesOfficial:
German
Religion
Majority:
Protestantism (Lutheran and Reformed; since 1817 Prussian United)
GovernmentAbsolute monarchy (until 1848)
Constitutional monarchy (from 1848)
King 
• 1701–1713 (first)
Frederick I
• 1888–1918 (last)
Wilhelm II
Minister-Presidenta 
• 1848 (first)
Adolf Heinrich
• 1918 (last)
Max von Baden
LegislatureLandtag
Herrenhaus
Abgeordnetenhaus
Historical era
18 January 1701
14 October 1806
9 June 1815
5 December 1848
18 January 1871
28 November 1918
28 June 1919
Area
1910[1]348,779 km2 (134,664 sq mi)
Population
• 1816[2]
10,349,031
• 1871[2]
24,689,000
• 1910[1]
40,169,219
Currency
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Holy Roman Empire
Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth
Duchy of Prussia
Brandenburg-Prussia.svg Brandenburg-Prussia
Royal Prussia
Free City of Danzig
Swedish Pomerania
Electorate of Hesse
Free City of Frankfurt
Duchy of Nassau
Kingdom of Hanover
Duchy of Holstein
Duchy of Schleswig
Saxe-Lauenburg
Free State of Prussia
Free City of Danzig
Second Polish Republic
Weimar Republic
First Czechoslovak Republic
Today part of Czech Republic
 Denmark
 Germany
 Lithuania
 Poland
 Russia
Arms of Brandenburg.svg
Arms of East Prussia.svg

History of Brandenburg and Prussia
Northern March
965–983
Old Prussians
pre-13th century
Lutician federation
983–12th century
Margraviate of Brandenburg
1157–1618 (1806) {HRE)
(Bohemia 1373–1415)
Teutonic Order
1224–1525
(Polish fief 1466-1525)
Duchy of Prussia
1525–1618 (1701)
(Polish fief 1525-1657)
Royal (Polish) Prussia (Poland)
1454/1466–1772
Brandenburg-Prussia
1618–1701
Kingdom in Prussia
1701–1772
Kingdom of Prussia
1772–1918
Free State of Prussia (Germany)
1918–1947
Klaipėda Region
(Lithuania)
1920–1939 / 1945–present
Recovered Territories
(Poland)
1918/1945–present
Brandenburg
(Germany)
1947–1952 / 1990–present
Kaliningrad Oblast
(Russia)
1945–present

The Kingdom of Prussia (German: Königreich Preußen) was a German kingdom that constituted the state of Prussia between 1701 and 1918.[3] It was the driving force behind the unification of Germany in 1871 and was the leading state of the German Empire until its dissolution in 1918.[3] Although it took its name from the region called Prussia, it was based in the Margraviate of Brandenburg, where its capital was Berlin.

The kings of Prussia were from the House of Hohenzollern. Prussia was a great power from the time it became a kingdom, through its predecessor, Brandenburg-Prussia, which became a military power under Frederick William, known as "The Great Elector".[4][5][6][7] Prussia continued its rise to power under the guidance of Frederick II, more commonly known as Frederick the Great, who was the third son of Frederick William I.[8] Frederick the Great was instrumental in starting the Seven Years' War, holding his own against Austria, Russia, France and Sweden and establishing Prussia's role in the German states, as well as establishing the country as a European great power.[9] After the might of Prussia was revealed it was considered as a major power among the German states. Throughout the next hundred years Prussia went on to win many battles, and many wars.[10] Because of its power, Prussia continuously tried to unify all the German states (excluding the German cantons in Switzerland) under its rule, and whether Austria would be included in such a unified German domain was an ongoing question.

After the Napoleonic Wars led to the creation of the German Confederation, the issue of unifying the German states caused a number of revolutions throughout the German states, with all states wanting to have their own constitution.[3] Attempts to create a federation remained unsuccessful and the German Confederation collapsed in 1866 when war ensued between its two most powerful member states, Prussia and Austria. The North German Confederation, which lasted from 1867 to 1871, created a closer union between the Prussian-aligned states while Austria and most of Southern Germany remained independent.[3] The North German Confederation was seen as more of an alliance of military strength in the aftermath of the Austro-Prussian War but many of its laws were later used in the German Empire. The German Empire lasted from 1871 to 1918 with the successful unification of all the German states under Prussian hegemony;[3] this was due to the defeat of Napoleon III in the Franco-Prussian War of 1870–71. The war united all the German states against a common enemy, and with the victory came an overwhelming wave of nationalism which changed the opinions of some of those who had been against unification. In 1871, Germany unified into a single country, minus Austria and Switzerland, with Prussia the dominant power.[3]

Prussia is considered the legal predecessor of the unified German Reich (1871–1945) and as such a direct ancestor of today's Federal Republic of Germany.[3] The formal abolition of Prussia, carried out on 25 February 1947 by the fiat of the Allied Control Council, referred to an alleged tradition of the kingdom as a bearer of militarism and reaction, and made way for the current setup of the German states. However, the Free State of Prussia (Freistaat Preußen), which followed the abolition of the Kingdom of Prussia in the aftermath of World War I, was a major democratic force in Weimar Germany until the nationalist coup of 1932 known as the Preußenschlag.[citation needed] The Kingdom left a significant cultural legacy, today notably promoted by the Prussian Cultural Heritage Foundation (Stiftung Preußischer Kulturbesitz (SPK)), which has become one of the largest cultural organisations in the world.[11]