Israel

  • israel

    • ישראל (hebrew)
    • إسرائيل (arabic)
    centered blue star within a horizontal triband
    flag
    centered menorah surrounded by two olive branches
    emblem
    anthem: "hatikvah" (english: "the hope")

    location of israel (in green) on the globe.
    1967 border (green line)
    1967 border (green line)
    capital
    and largest city
    jerusalem (limited recognition)[fn 1]
    31°47′n 35°13′e / 31°47′n 35°13′e / 31.783; 35.217
    official languageshebrew
    recognized languagesarabic[fn 2]
    ethnic groups
    (2019)
    • 74.2% jewish
    • 20.9% arab
    • 4.8% other[12]
    religion
    (2019)
    • 74.2% judaism
    • 17.8% islam
    • 2.0% christianity
    • 1.6% druze
    • 4.4% other[12]
    demonym(s)israeli
    governmentunitary parliamentary republic
    • president
    reuven rivlin
    • prime minister
    benjamin netanyahu
    • knesset speaker
    yuli edelstein
    • chief justice
    esther hayut
    legislatureknesset
    independence
    • declared
    14 may 1948
    • admission to uno
    11 may 1949
    area
    • total
    20,770–22,072 km2 (8,019–8,522 sq mi)[a] (150th)
    • water (%)
    2.1
    population
    • 2020 estimate
    9,163,240[13][fn 3] (99th)
    • 2008 census
    7,412,200[14][fn 3]
    • density
    415/km2 (1,074.8/sq mi) (35th)
    gdp (ppp)2019[17] estimate
    • total
    $353.645 billion[fn 3] (54th)
    • per capita
    $39,106[fn 3] (35th)
    gdp (nominal)2019[17] estimate
    • total
    $390.656 billion[fn 3] (32nd)
    • per capita
    $43,199[fn 3] (20th)
    gini (2013)42.8[fn 3][18]
    medium · 48th
    hdi (2018)increase 0.906[fn 3][19]
    very high · 22nd
    currencynew shekel (‎) (ils)
    time zoneutc+2 (ist)
    • summer (dst)
    utc+3 (idt)
    date format
    • יי-חח-שששש‎ (am)
    • dd-mm-yyyy (ce)
    driving sideright
    calling code+972
    iso 3166 codeil
    internet tldwww.israel.org
    1. ^ 20,770 km2 is israel within the green line. 22,072 km2 includes the annexed golan heights (c. 1,200 km2 (460 sq mi)) and east jerusalem (c. 64 km2 (25 sq mi)).

    israel (l/; hebrew: יִשְׂרָאֵל; arabic: إِسْرَائِيل‎), formally known as the state of israel (hebrew: מְדִינַת יִשְׂרָאֵל), is a country in western asia, located on the southeastern shore of the mediterranean sea and the northern shore of the red sea. it has land borders with lebanon to the north, syria to the northeast, jordan on the east, the palestinian territories of the west bank and gaza strip[20] to the east and west, respectively, and egypt to the southwest. the country contains geographically diverse features within its relatively small area.[21][22] israel's economic and technological center is tel aviv,[23] while its seat of government and proclaimed capital is jerusalem, although the state's sovereignty over jerusalem has only partial recognition.[24][25][26][27][fn 4]

    israel has evidence of the earliest migration of hominids out of africa.[28] canaanite tribes are archaeologically attested since the middle bronze age,[29][30] while the kingdoms of israel and judah emerged during the iron age.[31][32] the neo-assyrian empire destroyed israel around 720 bce.[33] judah was later conquered by the babylonian, persian and hellenistic empires and had existed as jewish autonomous provinces.[34][35] the successful maccabean revolt led to an independent hasmonean kingdom by 110 bce,[36] which in 63 bce however became a client state of the roman republic that subsequently installed the herodian dynasty in 37 bce, and in 6 ce created the roman province of judea.[37] judea lasted as a roman province until the failed jewish revolts resulted in widespread destruction,[36] the expulsion of the jewish population[36][38] and the renaming of the region from iudaea to syria palaestina.[39] jewish presence in the region has persisted to a certain extent over the centuries. in the 7th century ce, the levant was taken from the byzantine empire by the arabs and remained in muslim control until the first crusade of 1099, followed by the ayyubid conquest of 1187. the mamluk sultanate of egypt extended its control over the levant in the 13th century until its defeat by the ottoman empire in 1517. during the 19th century, national awakening among jews led to the establishment of the zionist movement in the diaspora followed by waves of immigration to ottoman syria and later mandatory palestine.

    in 1947, the united nations (un) adopted a partition plan for palestine recommending the creation of independent arab and jewish states and an internationalized jerusalem.[40] the plan was accepted by the jewish agency, and rejected by arab leaders.[41][42][43] the following year, the jewish agency declared the independence of the state of israel, and the subsequent 1948 arab–israeli war saw israel's establishment over most of the former mandate territory, while the west bank and gaza were held by neighboring arab states.[44] israel has since fought several wars with arab countries,[45] and since the six-day war in 1967 held occupied territories including the west bank, golan heights and the gaza strip (still considered occupied after the 2005 disengagement, although some legal experts dispute this claim).[46][47][48][fn 5] it extended its laws to the golan heights and east jerusalem, but not the west bank.[49][50][51][52] israel's occupation of the palestinian territories is the world's longest military occupation in modern times.[fn 5][54] efforts to resolve the israeli–palestinian conflict have not resulted in a final peace agreement. however, peace treaties between israel and both egypt and jordan have been signed.

    in its basic laws, israel defines itself as a jewish and democratic state and the nation state of the jewish people.[55] the country has a liberal democracy (one of only two in the middle east and north africa region, the other being tunisia),[56][57] with a parliamentary system, proportional representation, and universal suffrage.[58][59] the prime minister is head of government and the knesset is the legislature. with a population of around 9 million as of 2019,[60] israel is a developed country and an organisation for economic co-operation and development (oecd) member,[61] has the 31st or 32nd-largest economy in the world by nominal gross domestic product (gdp), and is the richest (nominal gdp) and the most developed country currently in conflict (counting countries with at least 100–999 military deaths per year).[62] it has the highest standard of living in the middle east,[19] and ranks among the world's top countries by percentage of citizens with military training,[63] percentage of citizens holding a tertiary education degree,[64] research and development spending by gdp percentage,[65] women's safety,[66] life expectancy,[67] innovativeness,[68] and happiness.[69]

  • etymology
  • history
  • geography and environment
  • demographics
  • government and politics
  • economy
  • culture
  • see also
  • notes
  • references
  • bibliography
  • external links

Israel

  • ישראל (Hebrew)
  • إسرائيل (Arabic)
Anthem: "Hatikvah" (English: "The Hope")

Location of Israel (in green) on the globe.
1967 border (Green Line)
1967 border (Green Line)
Capital
and largest city
Jerusalem (limited recognition)[fn 1]
31°47′N 35°13′E / 31°47′N 35°13′E / 31.783; 35.217
Official languagesHebrew
Recognized languagesArabic[fn 2]
Ethnic groups
(2019)
Religion
(2019)
Demonym(s)Israeli
GovernmentUnitary parliamentary republic
• President
Reuven Rivlin
Benjamin Netanyahu
Yuli Edelstein
Esther Hayut
LegislatureKnesset
Independence
• Declared
14 May 1948
11 May 1949
Area
• Total
20,770–22,072 km2 (8,019–8,522 sq mi)[a] (150th)
• Water (%)
2.1
Population
• 2020 estimate
9,163,240[13][fn 3] (99th)
• 2008 census
7,412,200[14][fn 3]
• Density
415/km2 (1,074.8/sq mi) (35th)
GDP (PPP)2019[17] estimate
• Total
$353.645 billion[fn 3] (54th)
• Per capita
$39,106[fn 3] (35th)
GDP (nominal)2019[17] estimate
• Total
$390.656 billion[fn 3] (32nd)
• Per capita
$43,199[fn 3] (20th)
Gini (2013)42.8[fn 3][18]
medium · 48th
HDI (2018)Increase 0.906[fn 3][19]
very high · 22nd
CurrencyNew shekel (‎) (ILS)
Time zoneUTC+2 (IST)
• Summer (DST)
UTC+3 (IDT)
Date format
  • יי-חח-שששש‎ (AM)
  • dd-mm-yyyy (CE)
Driving sideright
Calling code+972
ISO 3166 codeIL
Internet TLDwww.israel.org
  1. ^ 20,770 km2 is Israel within the Green Line. 22,072 km2 includes the annexed Golan Heights (c. 1,200 km2 (460 sq mi)) and East Jerusalem (c. 64 km2 (25 sq mi)).

Israel (l/; Hebrew: יִשְׂרָאֵל; Arabic: إِسْرَائِيل‎), formally known as the State of Israel (Hebrew: מְדִינַת יִשְׂרָאֵל), is a country in Western Asia, located on the southeastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea and the northern shore of the Red Sea. It has land borders with Lebanon to the north, Syria to the northeast, Jordan on the east, the Palestinian territories of the West Bank and Gaza Strip[20] to the east and west, respectively, and Egypt to the southwest. The country contains geographically diverse features within its relatively small area.[21][22] Israel's economic and technological center is Tel Aviv,[23] while its seat of government and proclaimed capital is Jerusalem, although the state's sovereignty over Jerusalem has only partial recognition.[24][25][26][27][fn 4]

Israel has evidence of the earliest migration of hominids out of Africa.[28] Canaanite tribes are archaeologically attested since the Middle Bronze Age,[29][30] while the Kingdoms of Israel and Judah emerged during the Iron Age.[31][32] The Neo-Assyrian Empire destroyed Israel around 720 BCE.[33] Judah was later conquered by the Babylonian, Persian and Hellenistic empires and had existed as Jewish autonomous provinces.[34][35] The successful Maccabean Revolt led to an independent Hasmonean kingdom by 110 BCE,[36] which in 63 BCE however became a client state of the Roman Republic that subsequently installed the Herodian dynasty in 37 BCE, and in 6 CE created the Roman province of Judea.[37] Judea lasted as a Roman province until the failed Jewish revolts resulted in widespread destruction,[36] the expulsion of the Jewish population[36][38] and the renaming of the region from Iudaea to Syria Palaestina.[39] Jewish presence in the region has persisted to a certain extent over the centuries. In the 7th century CE, the Levant was taken from the Byzantine Empire by the Arabs and remained in Muslim control until the First Crusade of 1099, followed by the Ayyubid conquest of 1187. The Mamluk Sultanate of Egypt extended its control over the Levant in the 13th century until its defeat by the Ottoman Empire in 1517. During the 19th century, national awakening among Jews led to the establishment of the Zionist movement in the diaspora followed by waves of immigration to Ottoman Syria and later Mandatory Palestine.

In 1947, the United Nations (UN) adopted a Partition Plan for Palestine recommending the creation of independent Arab and Jewish states and an internationalized Jerusalem.[40] The plan was accepted by the Jewish Agency, and rejected by Arab leaders.[41][42][43] The following year, the Jewish Agency declared the independence of the State of Israel, and the subsequent 1948 Arab–Israeli War saw Israel's establishment over most of the former Mandate territory, while the West Bank and Gaza were held by neighboring Arab states.[44] Israel has since fought several wars with Arab countries,[45] and since the Six-Day War in 1967 held occupied territories including the West Bank, Golan Heights and the Gaza Strip (still considered occupied after the 2005 disengagement, although some legal experts dispute this claim).[46][47][48][fn 5] It extended its laws to the Golan Heights and East Jerusalem, but not the West Bank.[49][50][51][52] Israel's occupation of the Palestinian territories is the world's longest military occupation in modern times.[fn 5][54] Efforts to resolve the Israeli–Palestinian conflict have not resulted in a final peace agreement. However, peace treaties between Israel and both Egypt and Jordan have been signed.

In its Basic Laws, Israel defines itself as a Jewish and democratic state and the nation state of the Jewish people.[55] The country has a liberal democracy (one of only two in the Middle East and North Africa region, the other being Tunisia),[56][57] with a parliamentary system, proportional representation, and universal suffrage.[58][59] The prime minister is head of government and the Knesset is the legislature. With a population of around 9 million as of 2019,[60] Israel is a developed country and an Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) member,[61] has the 31st or 32nd-largest economy in the world by nominal gross domestic product (GDP), and is the richest (nominal GDP) and the most developed country currently in conflict (counting countries with at least 100–999 military deaths per year).[62] It has the highest standard of living in the Middle East,[19] and ranks among the world's top countries by percentage of citizens with military training,[63] percentage of citizens holding a tertiary education degree,[64] research and development spending by GDP percentage,[65] women's safety,[66] life expectancy,[67] innovativeness,[68] and happiness.[69]