Indonesia

  • republic of indonesia

    republik indonesia  (indonesian)
    flag of indonesia
    flag
    national emblem of indonesia
    national emblem
    motto: bhinneka tunggal ika (old javanese)
    (english: "unity in diversity")
    national ideology: pancasila[1][2]
    anthem: "indonesia raya"
    (english: "great indonesia")
    indonesia (orthographic projection).svg
    capital
    and largest city
    jakarta
    6°10′30″s 106°49′40″e / 6°10′30″s 106°49′40″e / -6.17500; 106.82778
    official language
    and national language
    indonesian
    regional languages
    over 700 languages[3]
    ethnic groups
    over 300 ethnic groups[4]
    religion
    (2010)[5]
    • 87.2% islam
    • 9.9% christianity
    • —7.0% protestantism
    • —2.9% roman catholicism
    • 1.7% hinduism
    • 0.7% buddhism
    • 0.2% confucianism
      and others
    demonym(s)indonesian
    governmentunitary presidential constitutional republic
    • president
    joko widodo
    • vice president
    ma'ruf amin
    • dpr speaker
    puan maharani
    • chief justice
    muhammad hatta ali
    legislaturepeople's consultative assembly (mpr)
    • upper house
    regional representative council (dpd)
    • lower house
    people's representative council (dpr)
    formation
    • hindu and buddhist kingdoms
    2nd century
    • islamic sultanates
    13th century
    • dutch east india company
    20 march 1602
    • dutch east indies
    1 january 1800
    • japanese occupation
    9 march 1942
    • independence proclaimed
    17 august 1945
    • federation recognised
    27 december 1949
    • unitary republic
    17 august 1950
    area
    • land
    1,904,569[6] km2 (735,358 sq mi) (14th)
    • water (%)
    4.85
    population
    • 2018 estimate
    267,670,543[7][8]
    • 2010 census
    237,641,326[9] (4th)
    • density
    138/km2 (357.4/sq mi) (88th)
    gdp (ppp)2019 estimate
    • total
    $3.740 trillion[10] (7th)
    • per capita
    $14,840[10] (89th)
    gdp (nominal)2019 estimate
    • total
    $1.200 trillion[10] (16th)
    • per capita
    $4,460[10] (106th)
    gini (2017)positive decrease 38.1[11]
    medium
    hdi (2018)increase 0.707[11]
    high · 111th
    currencyindonesian rupiah (rp) (idr)
    time zoneutc+7 to +9 (various)
    date formatdd/mm/yyyy
    driving sideleft
    calling code+62
    iso 3166 codeid
    internet tld.id

    indonesia (ə/ (about this soundlisten) nee-zhə), officially the republic of indonesia (indonesian: republik indonesia [reˈpublik ɪndoˈnesia] (about this soundlisten)),[a] is a country in southeast asia, between the indian and pacific oceans. it is the world's largest island country, with more than seventeen thousand islands, and at 1,904,569 square kilometres (735,358 square miles), the 14th largest by land area and 7th in the combined sea and land area.[12] with over 267 million people, it is the world's 4th most populous country as well as the most populous muslim-majority country. java, the world's most populous island, is home to more than half of the country's population. the country's capital, jakarta, is the second-most populous urban area in the world.

    the sovereign state is a presidential, constitutional republic with an elected legislature. it has 34 provinces, of which five have special status. the country shares land borders with papua new guinea, east timor, and the eastern part of malaysia. other neighbouring countries include singapore, vietnam, the philippines, australia, palau, and india's andaman and nicobar islands. despite its large population and densely populated regions, indonesia has vast areas of wilderness that support a high level of biodiversity. the country has abundant natural resources like oil and natural gas, coal, tin, copper, gold, and nickel, while agriculture mainly produces rice, palm oil, tea, coffee, cacao, medicinal plants, spices, and rubber. china, the united states, japan, singapore, and india are indonesia's major trading partners.

    the indonesian archipelago has been a valuable region for trade since at least the 7th century when srivijaya and then later majapahit traded with entities from mainland china and the indian subcontinent. local rulers gradually absorbed foreign influences from the early centuries and hindu and buddhist kingdoms flourished. sunni traders and sufi scholars brought islam, while europeans introduced christianity through colonisation. although sometimes interrupted by the portuguese, french and british, the dutch were the foremost colonial power for much of their 350-year presence in the archipelago. the concept of "indonesia" as a nation-state emerged in the early 20th century[13] and the country proclaimed its independence in 1945. however, it was not until 1949 that the dutch recognised indonesia's sovereignty following an armed and diplomatic conflict between the two.

    indonesia consists of hundreds of distinct native ethnic and linguistic groups, with the largest one being the javanese. a shared identity has developed with the motto "bhinneka tunggal ika" ("unity in diversity" literally, "many, yet one"), defined by a national language, ethnic diversity, religious pluralism within a muslim-majority population, and a history of colonialism and rebellion against it. the economy of indonesia is the world's 16th largest by nominal gdp and 7th by gdp at ppp. the country is a member of several multilateral organisations, including the un, wto, imf, g20, and a founding member of non-aligned movement, association of southeast asian nations, asia-pacific economic cooperation, east asia summit, asian infrastructure investment bank, and organisation of islamic cooperation.

  • etymology
  • history
  • geography
  • government and politics
  • economy
  • demographics
  • culture
  • see also
  • notes
  • references
  • bibliography
  • external links

Republic of Indonesia

Republik Indonesia  (Indonesian)
Motto: Bhinneka Tunggal Ika (Old Javanese)
(English: "Unity in Diversity")
National ideology: Pancasila[1][2]
Anthem: "Indonesia Raya"
(English: "Great Indonesia")
Indonesia (orthographic projection).svg
Capital
and largest city
Jakarta
6°10′30″S 106°49′40″E / 6°10′30″S 106°49′40″E / -6.17500; 106.82778
Official language
and national language
Indonesian
Regional languages
Over 700 languages[3]
Ethnic groups
Over 300 ethnic groups[4]
Religion
(2010)[5]
Demonym(s)Indonesian
GovernmentUnitary presidential constitutional republic
• President
Joko Widodo
Ma'ruf Amin
Puan Maharani
Muhammad Hatta Ali
LegislaturePeople's Consultative Assembly (MPR)
Regional Representative Council (DPD)
People's Representative Council (DPR)
Formation
2nd century
13th century
20 March 1602
1 January 1800
9 March 1942
17 August 1945
27 December 1949
• Unitary republic
17 August 1950
Area
• Land
1,904,569[6] km2 (735,358 sq mi) (14th)
4.85
Population
• 2018 estimate
267,670,543[7][8]
• 2010 census
237,641,326[9] (4th)
• Density
138/km2 (357.4/sq mi) (88th)
GDP (PPP)2019 estimate
• Total
$3.740 trillion[10] (7th)
• Per capita
$14,840[10] (89th)
GDP (nominal)2019 estimate
• Total
$1.200 trillion[10] (16th)
• Per capita
$4,460[10] (106th)
Gini (2017)Positive decrease 38.1[11]
medium
HDI (2018)Increase 0.707[11]
high · 111th
CurrencyIndonesian rupiah (Rp) (IDR)
Time zoneUTC+7 to +9 (various)
Date formatDD/MM/YYYY
Driving sideleft
Calling code+62
ISO 3166 codeID
Internet TLD.id

Indonesia (ə/ (About this soundlisten) NEE-zhə), officially the Republic of Indonesia (Indonesian: Republik Indonesia [reˈpublik ɪndoˈnesia] (About this soundlisten)),[a] is a country in Southeast Asia, between the Indian and Pacific oceans. It is the world's largest island country, with more than seventeen thousand islands, and at 1,904,569 square kilometres (735,358 square miles), the 14th largest by land area and 7th in the combined sea and land area.[12] With over 267 million people, it is the world's 4th most populous country as well as the most populous Muslim-majority country. Java, the world's most populous island, is home to more than half of the country's population. The country's capital, Jakarta, is the second-most populous urban area in the world.

The sovereign state is a presidential, constitutional republic with an elected legislature. It has 34 provinces, of which five have special status. The country shares land borders with Papua New Guinea, East Timor, and the eastern part of Malaysia. Other neighbouring countries include Singapore, Vietnam, the Philippines, Australia, Palau, and India's Andaman and Nicobar Islands. Despite its large population and densely populated regions, Indonesia has vast areas of wilderness that support a high level of biodiversity. The country has abundant natural resources like oil and natural gas, coal, tin, copper, gold, and nickel, while agriculture mainly produces rice, palm oil, tea, coffee, cacao, medicinal plants, spices, and rubber. China, the United States, Japan, Singapore, and India are Indonesia's major trading partners.

The Indonesian archipelago has been a valuable region for trade since at least the 7th century when Srivijaya and then later Majapahit traded with entities from mainland China and the Indian subcontinent. Local rulers gradually absorbed foreign influences from the early centuries and Hindu and Buddhist kingdoms flourished. Sunni traders and Sufi scholars brought Islam, while Europeans introduced Christianity through colonisation. Although sometimes interrupted by the Portuguese, French and British, the Dutch were the foremost colonial power for much of their 350-year presence in the archipelago. The concept of "Indonesia" as a nation-state emerged in the early 20th century[13] and the country proclaimed its independence in 1945. However, it was not until 1949 that the Dutch recognised Indonesia's sovereignty following an armed and diplomatic conflict between the two.

Indonesia consists of hundreds of distinct native ethnic and linguistic groups, with the largest one being the Javanese. A shared identity has developed with the motto "Bhinneka Tunggal Ika" ("Unity in Diversity" literally, "many, yet one"), defined by a national language, ethnic diversity, religious pluralism within a Muslim-majority population, and a history of colonialism and rebellion against it. The economy of Indonesia is the world's 16th largest by nominal GDP and 7th by GDP at PPP. The country is a member of several multilateral organisations, including the UN, WTO, IMF, G20, and a founding member of Non-Aligned Movement, Association of Southeast Asian Nations, Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, East Asia Summit, Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank, and Organisation of Islamic Cooperation.