Hypertext Transfer Protocol

  • hypertext transfer protocol
    http logo.svg
    international standard7231
    developed byinitially cern; ietf, w3c
    introduced1991; 29 years ago (1991)

    the hypertext transfer protocol (http) is an application protocol for distributed, collaborative, hypermedia information systems.[1] http is the foundation of data communication for the world wide web, where hypertext documents include hyperlinks to other resources that the user can easily access, for example by a mouse click or by tapping the screen in a web browser.

    development of http was initiated by tim berners-lee at cern in 1989. development of early http requests for comments (rfcs) was a coordinated effort by the internet engineering task force (ietf) and the world wide web consortium (w3c), with work later moving to the ietf.

    http/1.1 was first documented in 2068 in 1997. that specification was obsoleted by 2616 in 1999, which was likewise replaced by the 7230 family of rfcs in 2014.

    http/2 is a more efficient expression of http's semantics "on the wire", and was published in 2015; it is now supported by major web servers and browsers over transport layer security (tls) using an application-layer protocol negotiation (alpn) extension[2] where tls 1.2 or newer is required.[3]

    http/3 is the proposed successor to http/2,[4][5] which is already in use on the web, using udp instead of tcp for the underlying transport protocol. like http/2, it does not obsolete previous major versions of the protocol. support for http/3 was added to cloudflare and google chrome in september 2019,[6][7] and can be enabled in the stable versions of chrome and firefox.[8]

  • technical overview
  • history
  • http session
  • http authentication
  • message format
  • encrypted connections
  • example session
  • similar protocols
  • see also
  • references
  • external links

Hypertext Transfer Protocol
HTTP logo.svg
International standard7231
Developed byinitially CERN; IETF, W3C
Introduced1991; 29 years ago (1991)

The Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) is an application protocol for distributed, collaborative, hypermedia information systems.[1] HTTP is the foundation of data communication for the World Wide Web, where hypertext documents include hyperlinks to other resources that the user can easily access, for example by a mouse click or by tapping the screen in a web browser.

Development of HTTP was initiated by Tim Berners-Lee at CERN in 1989. Development of early HTTP Requests for Comments (RFCs) was a coordinated effort by the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) and the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C), with work later moving to the IETF.

HTTP/1.1 was first documented in 2068 in 1997. That specification was obsoleted by 2616 in 1999, which was likewise replaced by the 7230 family of RFCs in 2014.

HTTP/2 is a more efficient expression of HTTP's semantics "on the wire", and was published in 2015; it is now supported by major web servers and browsers over Transport Layer Security (TLS) using an Application-Layer Protocol Negotiation (ALPN) extension[2] where TLS 1.2 or newer is required.[3]

HTTP/3 is the proposed successor to HTTP/2,[4][5] which is already in use on the web, using UDP instead of TCP for the underlying transport protocol. Like HTTP/2, it does not obsolete previous major versions of the protocol. Support for HTTP/3 was added to Cloudflare and Google Chrome in September 2019,[6][7] and can be enabled in the stable versions of Chrome and Firefox.[8]