History of the Internet

  • the history of the internet has its origin in the efforts to interconnect computer networks that arose from research and development in the united states and involved international collaboration, particularly with researchers in the united kingdom and france.[1][2][3][4]

    computer science was an emerging discipline in the late 1950s that began to consider time-sharing between computer users and, later, the possibility of achieving this over wide area networks. independently, paul baran proposed a distributed network based on data in message blocks in the early 1960s and donald davies conceived of packet switching in 1965 at the national physics laboratory (npl) in the uk, which became a testbed for research for two decades.[5][6] the u.s. department of defense awarded contracts in 1969 for the development of the arpanet project, directed by robert taylor and managed by lawrence roberts. arpanet adopted the packet switching technology proposed by davies and baran,[7] underpinned by mathematical work in the early 1970s by leonard kleinrock. the network was built by bolt, beranek, and newman.[8]

    early packet switching networks such as the npl network, arpanet, merit network, and cyclades in the early 1970s researched and provided data networking. the arpanet project and international working groups led to the development of protocols for internetworking, in which multiple separate networks could be joined into a network of networks, which produced various standards. vint cerf, at stanford university, and bob kahn, at arpa, published research in 1973 that evolved into the transmission control protocol (tcp) and internet protocol (ip), the two protocols of the internet protocol suite. the design included concepts from the french cyclades project directed by louis pouzin.

    in the early 1980s the nsf funded national supercomputing centers at several universities in the united states and provided interconnectivity in 1986 with the nsfnet project, which created network access to these supercomputer sites for research and academic organizations in the united states. international connections to nsfnet, the emergence of architecture such as the domain name system, and the adoption of tcp/ip internationally marked the beginnings of the internet.[9][10] commercial internet service providers (isps) began to emerge in the very late 1980s. the arpanet was decommissioned in 1990. limited private connections to parts of the internet by officially commercial entities emerged in several american cities by late 1989 and 1990.[11] the nsfnet was decommissioned in 1995, removing the last restrictions on the use of the internet to carry commercial traffic.

    research at cern in switzerland by british computer scientist tim berners-lee in 1989-90 resulted in the world wide web, linking hypertext documents into an information system, accessible from any node on the network.[12] since the mid-1990s, the internet has had a revolutionary impact on culture, commerce, and technology, including the rise of near-instant communication by electronic mail, instant messaging, voice over internet protocol (voip) telephone calls, two-way interactive video calls, and the world wide web with its discussion forums, blogs, social networking, and online shopping sites. increasing amounts of data are transmitted at higher and higher speeds over fiber optic networks operating at 1 gbit/s, 10 gbit/s, or more. the internet's takeover of the global communication landscape was rapid in historical terms: it only communicated 1% of the information flowing through two-way telecommunications networks in the year 1993, 51% by 2000, and more than 97% of the telecommunicated information by 2007.[13] today, the internet continues to grow, driven by ever greater amounts of online information, commerce, entertainment, and social networking. however, the future of the global network may be shaped by regional differences.[14]

    internet history timeline

    early research and development:

    • 1963 (1963): arpa networking ideas
    • 1964 (1964): rand networking concepts
    • 1965 (1965): npl network concepts
    • 1966 (1966): arpanet planning
    • 1966 (1966): merit network founded
    • 1967 (1967): npl network packet switching pilot experiment
    • 1969 (1969): arpanet carries its first packets
    • 1970 (1970): network information center (nic)
    • 1971 (1971): tymnet switched-circuit network
    • 1972 (1972): merit network's packet-switched network operational
    • 1972 (1972): internet assigned numbers authority (iana) established
    • 1973 (1973): cyclades network demonstrated
    • 1974 (1974): transmission control program specification published
    • 1975 (1975): telenet commercial packet-switched network
    • 1976 (1976): x.25 protocol approved
    • 1978 (1978): minitel introduced
    • 1979 (1979): internet activities board (iab)
    • 1980 (1980): usenet news using uucp
    • 1980 (1980): ethernet standard introduced
    • 1981 (1981): bitnet established

    merging the networks and creating the internet:

    • 1981 (1981): computer science network (csnet)
    • 1982 (1982): tcp/ip protocol suite formalized
    • 1982 (1982): simple mail transfer protocol (smtp)
    • 1983 (1983): domain name system (dns)
    • 1983 (1983): milnet split off from arpanet
    • 1984 (1984): osi reference model released
    • 1985 (1985): first .com domain name registered
    • 1986 (1986): nsfnet with 56 kbit/s links
    • 1986 (1986): internet engineering task force (ietf)
    • 1987 (1987): uunet founded
    • 1988 (1988): nsfnet upgraded to 1.5 mbit/s (t1)
    • 1988 (1988): morris worm
    • 1988 (1988): complete internet protocol suite
    • 1989 (1989): border gateway protocol (bgp)
    • 1989 (1989): psinet founded, allows commercial traffic
    • 1989 (1989): federal internet exchanges (fixes)
    • 1990 (1990): gosip (without tcp/ip)
    • 1990 (1990): arpanet decommissioned
    • 1990 (1990): advanced network and services (ans)
    • 1990 (1990): uunet/alternet allows commercial traffic
    • 1990 (1990): archie search engine
    • 1991 (1991): wide area information server (wais)
    • 1991 (1991): gopher
    • 1991 (1991): commercial internet exchange (cix)
    • 1991 (1991): ans co+re allows commercial traffic
    • 1991 (1991): world wide web (www)
    • 1992 (1992): nsfnet upgraded to 45 mbit/s (t3)
    • 1992 (1992): internet society (isoc) established
    • 1993 (1993): classless inter-domain routing (cidr)
    • 1993 (1993): internic established
    • 1993 (1993): aol added usenet access
    • 1993 (1993): mosaic web browser released
    • 1994 (1994): full text web search engines
    • 1994 (1994): north american network operators' group (nanog) established

    commercialization, privatization, broader access leads to the modern internet:

    • 1995 (1995): new internet architecture with commercial isps connected at naps
    • 1995 (1995): nsfnet decommissioned
    • 1995 (1995): gosip updated to allow tcp/ip
    • 1995 (1995): very high-speed backbone network service (vbns)
    • 1995 (1995): ipv6 proposed
    • 1996 (1996): aol changes pricing model from hourly to monthly
    • 1998 (1998): internet corporation for assigned names and numbers (icann)
    • 1999 (1999): ieee 802.11b wireless networking
    • 1999 (1999): internet2/abilene network
    • 1999 (1999): vbns+ allows broader access
    • 2000 (2000): dot-com bubble bursts
    • 2001 (2001): new top-level domain names activated
    • 2001 (2001): code red i, code red ii, and nimda worms
    • 2003 (2003): un world summit on the information society (wsis) phase i
    • 2003 (2003): national lambdarail founded
    • 2004 (2004): un working group on internet governance (wgig)
    • 2005 (2005): un wsis phase ii
    • 2006 (2006): first meeting of the internet governance forum
    • 2010 (2010): first internationalized country code top-level domains registered
    • 2012 (2012): icann begins accepting applications for new generic top-level domain names
    • 2013 (2013): montevideo statement on the future of internet cooperation
    • 2014 (2014): netmundial international internet governance proposal
    • 2016 (2016): icann contract with u.s. dept. of commerce ends, iana oversight passes to the global internet community on october 1st

    examples of internet services:

    • 1989 (1989): aol dial-up service provider, email, instant messaging, and web browser
    • 1990 (1990): imdb internet movie database
    • 1994 (1994): yahoo! web directory
    • 1995 (1995): amazon.com online retailer
    • 1995 (1995): ebay online auction and shopping
    • 1995 (1995): craigslist classified advertisements
    • 1996 (1996): hotmail free web-based e-mail
    • 1996 (1996): rankdex search engine
    • 1997 (1997): google search
    • 1997 (1997): babel fish automatic translation
    • 1998 (1998): yahoo! clubs (now yahoo! groups)
    • 1998 (1998): paypal internet payment system
    • 1998 (1998): rotten tomatoes review aggregator
    • 1999 (1999): 2ch anonymous textboard
    • 1999 (1999): i-mode mobile internet service
    • 1999 (1999): napster peer-to-peer file sharing
    • 2000 (2000): baidu search engine
    • 2001 (2001): 2chan anonymous imageboard
    • 2001 (2001): bittorrent peer-to-peer file sharing
    • 2001 (2001): wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
    • 2003 (2003): linkedin business networking
    • 2003 (2003): myspace social networking site
    • 2003 (2003): skype internet voice calls
    • 2003 (2003): itunes store
    • 2003 (2003): 4chan anonymous imageboard
    • 2003 (2003): the pirate bay, torrent file host
    • 2004 (2004): facebook social networking site
    • 2004 (2004): podcast media file series
    • 2004 (2004): flickr image hosting
    • 2005 (2005): youtube video sharing
    • 2005 (2005): reddit link voting
    • 2005 (2005): google earth virtual globe
    • 2006 (2006): twitter microblogging
    • 2007 (2007): wikileaks anonymous news and information leaks
    • 2007 (2007): google street view
    • 2007 (2007): kindle, e-reader and virtual bookshop
    • 2008 (2008): amazon elastic compute cloud (ec2)
    • 2008 (2008): dropbox cloud-based file hosting
    • 2008 (2008): encyclopedia of life, a collaborative encyclopedia intended to document all living species
    • 2008 (2008): spotify, a drm-based music streaming service
    • 2009 (2009): bing search engine
    • 2009 (2009): google docs, web-based word processor, spreadsheet, presentation, form, and data storage service
    • 2009 (2009): kickstarter, a threshold pledge system
    • 2009 (2009): bitcoin, a digital currency
    • 2010 (2010): instagram, photo sharing and social networking
    • 2011 (2011): google+, social networking
    • 2011 (2011): snapchat, photo sharing
    • 2012 (2012): coursera, massive open online courses
  • foundations
  • development of wide area networking
  • networks that led to the internet
  • merging the networks and creating the internet (1973–95)
  • internet governance
  • politicization of the internet
  • use and culture
  • web technologies
  • historiography
  • see also
  • references
  • bibliography
  • further reading
  • external links

The history of the Internet has its origin in the efforts to interconnect computer networks that arose from research and development in the United States and involved international collaboration, particularly with researchers in the United Kingdom and France.[1][2][3][4]

Computer science was an emerging discipline in the late 1950s that began to consider time-sharing between computer users and, later, the possibility of achieving this over wide area networks. Independently, Paul Baran proposed a distributed network based on data in message blocks in the early 1960s and Donald Davies conceived of packet switching in 1965 at the National Physics Laboratory (NPL) in the UK, which became a testbed for research for two decades.[5][6] The U.S. Department of Defense awarded contracts in 1969 for the development of the ARPANET project, directed by Robert Taylor and managed by Lawrence Roberts. ARPANET adopted the packet switching technology proposed by Davies and Baran,[7] underpinned by mathematical work in the early 1970s by Leonard Kleinrock. The network was built by Bolt, Beranek, and Newman.[8]

Early packet switching networks such as the NPL network, ARPANET, Merit Network, and CYCLADES in the early 1970s researched and provided data networking. The ARPANET project and international working groups led to the development of protocols for internetworking, in which multiple separate networks could be joined into a network of networks, which produced various standards. Vint Cerf, at Stanford University, and Bob Kahn, at ARPA, published research in 1973 that evolved into the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and Internet Protocol (IP), the two protocols of the Internet protocol suite. The design included concepts from the French CYCLADES project directed by Louis Pouzin.

In the early 1980s the NSF funded national supercomputing centers at several universities in the United States and provided interconnectivity in 1986 with the NSFNET project, which created network access to these supercomputer sites for research and academic organizations in the United States. International connections to NSFNET, the emergence of architecture such as the Domain Name System, and the adoption of TCP/IP internationally marked the beginnings of the Internet.[9][10] Commercial Internet service providers (ISPs) began to emerge in the very late 1980s. The ARPANET was decommissioned in 1990. Limited private connections to parts of the Internet by officially commercial entities emerged in several American cities by late 1989 and 1990.[11] The NSFNET was decommissioned in 1995, removing the last restrictions on the use of the Internet to carry commercial traffic.

Research at CERN in Switzerland by British computer scientist Tim Berners-Lee in 1989-90 resulted in the World Wide Web, linking hypertext documents into an information system, accessible from any node on the network.[12] Since the mid-1990s, the Internet has had a revolutionary impact on culture, commerce, and technology, including the rise of near-instant communication by electronic mail, instant messaging, voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) telephone calls, two-way interactive video calls, and the World Wide Web with its discussion forums, blogs, social networking, and online shopping sites. Increasing amounts of data are transmitted at higher and higher speeds over fiber optic networks operating at 1 Gbit/s, 10 Gbit/s, or more. The Internet's takeover of the global communication landscape was rapid in historical terms: it only communicated 1% of the information flowing through two-way telecommunications networks in the year 1993, 51% by 2000, and more than 97% of the telecommunicated information by 2007.[13] Today, the Internet continues to grow, driven by ever greater amounts of online information, commerce, entertainment, and social networking. However, the future of the global network may be shaped by regional differences.[14]

Internet history timeline

Early research and development:

Merging the networks and creating the Internet:

Commercialization, privatization, broader access leads to the modern Internet:

Examples of Internet services: