portion of the temple scroll
, one of the longest of the dead sea scrolls
discovered at qumran
|pronunciation||modern: [ivˈʁit] – ancient: [ʕib'rit]|
|region||land of israel|
|ethnicity||hebrews; jews and samaritans|
|extinct||mishnaic hebrew extinct as a spoken language by the 5th century ce, surviving as a liturgical language along with biblical hebrew for judaism|
|revival||revived in the late 19th century ce. 9 million speakers of modern hebrew of which 5 million are native speakers (2017)|
paleo-hebrew alphabet (archaic biblical hebrew)
imperial aramaic script (late biblical hebrew)
|signed hebrew (oral hebrew accompanied by sign)|
official language in
| israel (as modern hebrew)|
|regulated by||academy of the hebrew language|
האקדמיה ללשון העברית (haakademia lalashon haʿivrit)
heb – modern hebrew
hbo – classical hebrew (liturgical)
smp – samaritan hebrew (liturgical)
obm – moabite (extinct)
xdm – edomite (extinct)
the word hebrew written in modern hebrew language (top), and in paleo-hebrew alphabet
hebrew (/; עִבְרִית, ivrit hebrew pronunciation: [ivˈʁit] or [ʕivˈɾit] (listen)) is a northwest semitic language native to israel. in 2013, modern hebrew was spoken by over nine million people worldwide. historically, it is regarded as the language of the israelites and their ancestors, although the language was not referred to by the name "hebrew" in the tanakh itself.[note 1] the earliest examples of written paleo-hebrew date from the 10th century bce. hebrew belongs to the west semitic branch of the afroasiatic language family. hebrew is the only canaanite language still spoken, and the only truly successful example of a revived dead language.
hebrew had ceased to be an everyday spoken language somewhere between 200 and 400 ce, declining since the aftermath of the bar kokhba revolt.[note 2] aramaic and, to a lesser extent, greek were already in use as international languages, especially among elites and immigrants. hebrew survived into the medieval period as the language of jewish liturgy, rabbinic literature, intra-jewish commerce and poetry. with the rise of zionism in the 19th century, it was revived as a spoken and literary language, becoming the main language of the yishuv, and subsequently of the state of israel. according to ethnologue, in 1998, hebrew was the language of five million people worldwide. after israel, the united states has the second-largest hebrew-speaking population, with about 220,000 fluent speakers, mostly from israel.
modern hebrew is the official language of the state of israel, while premodern hebrew is used for prayer or study in jewish communities around the world today. the samaritan dialect is also the liturgical tongue of the samaritans, while modern hebrew or arabic is their vernacular. as a foreign language, it is studied mostly by jews and students of judaism and israel, and by archaeologists and linguists specializing in the middle east and its civilizations, as well as by theologians in christian seminaries.
the first five books of the torah, and most of the rest of the hebrew bible, is written in biblical hebrew, with much of its present form in the dialect that scholars believe flourished around the 6th century bce, around the time of the babylonian captivity. for this reason, hebrew has been referred to by jews as lashon hakodesh (לשון הקודש), "the holy language", since ancient times.