Egypt

  • arab republic of egypt

    flag of egypt
    flag
    coat of arms of egypt
    coat of arms
    anthem: "bilady, bilady, bilady"
    "بلادي، بلادي، بلادي"
    "my country, my country, my country"
    egy orthographic.svg
    capital
    and largest city
    cairo
    30°2′n 31°13′e / 30°2′n 31°13′e / 30.033; 31.217
    official languagesarabic
    national languageegyptian arabic[a]
    religion
    see religion in egypt
    demonym(s)egyptian
    governmentunitary semi-presidential
    republic
    • president
    abdel fattah el-sisi
    • prime minister
    mostafa madbouly
    • house speaker
    ali abdel aal
    legislaturehouse of representatives
    establishment
    • unification of upper
    and lower egypt
    [1][2][b]
    c. 3150 bc
    • muhammad ali dynasty inaugurated
    9 july 1805[3]
    • independence from
    united kingdom
    28 february 1922
    • revolution day
    23 july 1952
    • republic declared
    18 june 1953
    • current constitution
    18 january 2014
    area
    • total
    1,010,408[4] km2 (390,121 sq mi) (29th)
    • water (%)
    0.632
    population
    • 2020 estimate
    increase 100,075,480 [5][6] (13th)
    • 2017 census
    94,798,827[7]
    • density
    100/km2 (259.0/sq mi) (83th)
    gdp (ppp)2019 estimate
    • total
    increase $1.391 trillion[8] (19th)
    • per capita
    increase $14,023[8] (94th)
    gdp (nominal)2019 estimate
    • total
    increase $302.256 billion[8] (40th)
    • per capita
    increase $3,047[8] (126th)
    gini (2015)positive decrease 31.8[9]
    medium · 51st
    hdi (2018)increase 0.700[10]
    high · 116th
    currencyegyptian pound (e£) (egp)
    time zoneutc+2[c] (eet)
    driving sideright
    calling code+20
    iso 3166 codeeg
    internet tld
    • .eg
    • مصر.
    1. ^ literary arabic is the sole official language.[11] egyptian arabic is the spoken language. other dialects and minority languages are spoken regionally.
    2. ^ "among the peoples of the ancient near east, only the egyptians have stayed where they were and remained what they were, although they have changed their language once and their religion twice. in a sense, they constitute the world's oldest nation".[12][13] arthur goldschmidt jr.
    3. ^ see daylight saving time in egypt.

    egypt (t/ (about this soundlisten) ee-jipt; arabic: مِصرmiṣr), officially the arab republic of egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of africa and southwest corner of asia by a land bridge formed by the sinai peninsula. egypt is a mediterranean country bordered by the gaza strip (palestine) and israel to the northeast, the gulf of aqaba and the red sea to the east, sudan to the south, and libya to the west. across the gulf of aqaba lies jordan, across the red sea lies saudi arabia, and across the mediterranean lie greece, turkey and cyprus, although none share a land border with egypt.

    egypt has one of the longest histories of any country, tracing its heritage back to the 6th–4th millennia bce. considered a cradle of civilisation, ancient egypt saw some of the earliest developments of writing, agriculture, urbanisation, organised religion and central government.[14] iconic monuments such as the giza necropolis and its great sphinx, as well the ruins of memphis, thebes, karnak, and the valley of the kings, reflect this legacy and remain a significant focus of scientific and popular interest. egypt's long and rich cultural heritage is an integral part of its national identity, which has endured, and often assimilated, various foreign influences, including greek, persian, roman, arab, ottoman turkish, and nubian. egypt was an early and important centre of christianity, but was largely islamised in the seventh century and remains a predominantly muslim country, albeit with a significant christian minority.

    from the 16th to the beginning of the 20th century, egypt was ruled by foreign imperial powers: the ottoman empire and the british empire. modern egypt dates back to 1922, when it gained nominal independence from the british empire as a monarchy. however, british military occupation of egypt continued, and many egyptians believed that the monarchy was an instrument of british colonialism. following the 1952 revolution, egypt expelled british soldiers and bureaucrats and ended british occupation, nationalized the british-held suez canal, exiled king farouk and his family, and declared itself a republic. in 1958 it merged with syria to form the united arab republic, which dissolved in 1961. throughout the second half of the 20th century, egypt endured social and religious strife and political instability, fighting several armed conflicts with israel in 1948, 1956, 1967 and 1973, and occupying the gaza strip intermittently until 1967. in 1978, egypt signed the camp david accords, officially withdrawing from the gaza strip and recognising israel. the country continues to face challenges, from political unrest, including the recent 2011 revolution and its aftermath, to terrorism and economic underdevelopment. egypt's current government is a semi-presidential republic headed by president abdel fattah el-sisi, which has been described by a number of watchdogs as authoritarian.

    islam is the official religion of egypt and arabic is its official language.[15] with over 100 million inhabitants, egypt is the most populous country in north africa, the middle east, and the arab world, the third-most populous in africa (after nigeria and ethiopia), and the thirteenth-most populous in the world. the great majority of its people live near the banks of the nile river, an area of about 40,000 square kilometres (15,000 sq mi), where the only arable land is found. the large regions of the sahara desert, which constitute most of egypt's territory, are sparsely inhabited. about half of egypt's residents live in urban areas, with most spread across the densely populated centres of greater cairo, alexandria and other major cities in the nile delta.

    egypt is considered to be a regional power in north africa, the middle east and the muslim world, and a middle power worldwide.[16] with one of the largest and most diversified economies in the middle east, which is projected to become one of the largest in the world in the 21st century, egypt has the third-largest economy in africa, the world's 40th-largest economy by nominal gdp, and the 19-largest by ppp. egypt is a founding member of the united nations, the non-aligned movement, the arab league, the african union, and the organisation of islamic cooperation.

  • names
  • history
  • geography
  • government
  • economy
  • demographics
  • culture
  • telecommunication
  • education
  • health
  • see also
  • notes
  • references
  • external links

Arab Republic of Egypt

Anthem: "Bilady, Bilady, Bilady"
"بلادي، بلادي، بلادي"
"My country, my country, my country"
EGY orthographic.svg
Capital
and largest city
Cairo
30°2′N 31°13′E / 30°2′N 31°13′E / 30.033; 31.217
Official languagesArabic
National languageEgyptian Arabic[a]
Religion
See Religion in Egypt
Demonym(s)Egyptian
GovernmentUnitary semi-presidential
republic
• President
Abdel Fattah el-Sisi
Mostafa Madbouly
Ali Abdel Aal
LegislatureHouse of Representatives
Establishment
• Unification of Upper
and Lower Egypt
[1][2][b]
c. 3150 BC
• Muhammad Ali dynasty inaugurated
9 July 1805[3]
28 February 1922
23 July 1952
• Republic declared
18 June 1953
18 January 2014
Area
• Total
1,010,408[4] km2 (390,121 sq mi) (29th)
• Water (%)
0.632
Population
• 2020 estimate
Increase 100,075,480 [5][6] (13th)
• 2017 census
94,798,827[7]
• Density
100/km2 (259.0/sq mi) (83th)
GDP (PPP)2019 estimate
• Total
Increase $1.391 trillion[8] (19th)
• Per capita
Increase $14,023[8] (94th)
GDP (nominal)2019 estimate
• Total
Increase $302.256 billion[8] (40th)
• Per capita
Increase $3,047[8] (126th)
Gini (2015)Positive decrease 31.8[9]
medium · 51st
HDI (2018)Increase 0.700[10]
high · 116th
CurrencyEgyptian pound (E£) (EGP)
Time zoneUTC+2[c] (EET)
Driving sideright
Calling code+20
ISO 3166 codeEG
Internet TLD
  1. ^ Literary Arabic is the sole official language.[11] Egyptian Arabic is the spoken language. Other dialects and minority languages are spoken regionally.
  2. ^ "Among the peoples of the ancient Near East, only the Egyptians have stayed where they were and remained what they were, although they have changed their language once and their religion twice. In a sense, they constitute the world's oldest nation".[12][13] Arthur Goldschmidt Jr.
  3. ^ See Daylight saving time in Egypt.

Egypt (t/ (About this soundlisten) EE-jipt; Arabic: مِصرMiṣr), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia by a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula. Egypt is a Mediterranean country bordered by the Gaza Strip (Palestine) and Israel to the northeast, the Gulf of Aqaba and the Red Sea to the east, Sudan to the south, and Libya to the west. Across the Gulf of Aqaba lies Jordan, across the Red Sea lies Saudi Arabia, and across the Mediterranean lie Greece, Turkey and Cyprus, although none share a land border with Egypt.

Egypt has one of the longest histories of any country, tracing its heritage back to the 6th–4th millennia BCE. Considered a cradle of civilisation, Ancient Egypt saw some of the earliest developments of writing, agriculture, urbanisation, organised religion and central government.[14] Iconic monuments such as the Giza Necropolis and its Great Sphinx, as well the ruins of Memphis, Thebes, Karnak, and the Valley of the Kings, reflect this legacy and remain a significant focus of scientific and popular interest. Egypt's long and rich cultural heritage is an integral part of its national identity, which has endured, and often assimilated, various foreign influences, including Greek, Persian, Roman, Arab, Ottoman Turkish, and Nubian. Egypt was an early and important centre of Christianity, but was largely Islamised in the seventh century and remains a predominantly Muslim country, albeit with a significant Christian minority.

From the 16th to the beginning of the 20th century, Egypt was ruled by foreign imperial powers: The Ottoman Empire and the British Empire. Modern Egypt dates back to 1922, when it gained nominal independence from the British Empire as a monarchy. However, British military occupation of Egypt continued, and many Egyptians believed that the monarchy was an instrument of British colonialism. Following the 1952 revolution, Egypt expelled British soldiers and bureaucrats and ended British occupation, nationalized the British-held Suez Canal, exiled King Farouk and his family, and declared itself a republic. In 1958 it merged with Syria to form the United Arab Republic, which dissolved in 1961. Throughout the second half of the 20th century, Egypt endured social and religious strife and political instability, fighting several armed conflicts with Israel in 1948, 1956, 1967 and 1973, and occupying the Gaza Strip intermittently until 1967. In 1978, Egypt signed the Camp David Accords, officially withdrawing from the Gaza Strip and recognising Israel. The country continues to face challenges, from political unrest, including the recent 2011 revolution and its aftermath, to terrorism and economic underdevelopment. Egypt's current government is a semi-presidential republic headed by President Abdel Fattah el-Sisi, which has been described by a number of watchdogs as authoritarian.

Islam is the official religion of Egypt and Arabic is its official language.[15] With over 100 million inhabitants, Egypt is the most populous country in North Africa, the Middle East, and the Arab world, the third-most populous in Africa (after Nigeria and Ethiopia), and the thirteenth-most populous in the world. The great majority of its people live near the banks of the Nile River, an area of about 40,000 square kilometres (15,000 sq mi), where the only arable land is found. The large regions of the Sahara desert, which constitute most of Egypt's territory, are sparsely inhabited. About half of Egypt's residents live in urban areas, with most spread across the densely populated centres of greater Cairo, Alexandria and other major cities in the Nile Delta.

Egypt is considered to be a regional power in North Africa, the Middle East and the Muslim world, and a middle power worldwide.[16] With one of the largest and most diversified economies in the Middle East, which is projected to become one of the largest in the world in the 21st century, Egypt has the third-largest economy in Africa, the world's 40th-largest economy by nominal GDP, and the 19-largest by PPP. Egypt is a founding member of the United Nations, the Non-Aligned Movement, the Arab League, the African Union, and the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation.