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1946 (MCMXLVI)was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar, the 1946th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 946th year of the 2nd millennium, the 46th year of the 20th century, and the 7th year of the 1940s decade.
- April 1
- April 3 – Japanese Lt. General Masaharu Homma is executed outside Manila in the Philippines, for leading the Bataan Death March.
- April 10 – In Japan, women vote for the first time, during elections for the House of Representatives of the 90th Imperial Diet.
- April 14 – Sh'erit ha-Pletah members of Nakam, the "Jewish Avengers", poison with arsenic bread baked in Nuremberg for SS prisoners of war, held at Stalag XIII-D by the Americans.
- April 17 – Syria's independence from France is officially recognized.
- April 18
- April 23 – The Eastern Pennsylvania Basketball League (later the CBA) is founded.
- April 27 – FA Cup in England: Derby County beat Charlton Athletic, in the first FA Cup final since 1939.
- April 28 – Kinderdorf Pestalozzi (Pestalozzi Children's Village) is established at Trogen, Switzerland to accommodate and educate orphans of World War II, according to Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi's principles.
- April 29 – Trials against war criminals begin in Tokyo; the accused include Hideki Tōjō, Shigenori Tōgō and Hiroshi Ōshima.
- October 1 – Mensa, an international organization for people with a high intelligence quotient (IQ), is founded by Roland Berrill, an Australian-born lawyer, and Dr Lancelot Ware, an English biochemist and lawyer, in Oxford.
- October 2 – Communists take over in Bulgaria.
- October 6 – Sweden's Prime Minister Per Albin Hansson dies in office of a heart attack.
- October 10 – The Noakhali genocide of Hindus in Bengal begins, at the hands of Muslim mobs.
- October 11 – After a few days of vacancy, the Swedish premiership is taken over by Tage Erlander.
- October 13 – France adopts the constitution of the Fourth Republic.
- October 14 – The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) is founded.
- October 15 – Nuremberg trials: Hermann Göring, founder of the Gestapo and recently convicted Nazi war criminal, poisons himself two hours before his scheduled execution.
- October 16
- October 23 – The United Nations General Assembly convenes for the first time, at an auditorium in Flushing, Queens, New York City.
- October 24–November 11 – 1946 Bihar riots: Hindu mobs target Muslim families in the Indian state of Bihar, resulting in anywhere between 2,000 and 30,000 deaths.